The Chitwan National Park is the first national park of Nepal. It was established in the year 1973. The reserve was initially named as Royal Chitwan National Park, but due to the political change in the country the word Royal was excluded from the name since then. It was rewarded as a world heritage site in 1984. The reserve covers an area of 932 sq km and is located in the subtropical inner terai of south-central Nepal in the Chitwan district. The national park ranges from 100m to 815 in altitudes. The northern and western boundary is formed by the Narayani-Rapti River where human settlements slightly disturb the area. A neighbouring reserve in the east of the national park is Parsa Wildlife Reserve that covers an area of 2,057 sq km. These two wildlife reserves is known as Tiger Conservation Unit [TCU] and covers 3,549 sq km in total.
Chitwan National Park is counted among the most preferred destinations by tourists. Accommodations inside the reserve have been developed than ever before with numbers of lodges. Combination of jeep and elephant safaris along with rafting tours and guided jungle walks are enduring to do. Around 350 to 500 hotels and conduction of 800 elephant rides provide a better facility to the jungle safari tour. Near to the reserve, Sauraha is a famous spot for tourists. The place can be accessed from the Bharatpur Airport. Sauraha comprises of a large number of lodges, hotels, restaurants and travel agencies.
The reserve comprises of species of butterfly, moth and insects. Apart from King cobra and Rock python, 17 other species of snakes, starred tortoise and monitor lizards are found. The water resources of the national park include 113 species of fish and mugger crocodiles. Similarly, the reserve is a home to about 43 species of mammals. Sloth bears, Smooth-coated otters, creeks, rivulets, Bengal foxes, spotted linsangs, honey badgers Striped hyenas, wild dogs golden jackals, fishing cats, jungle cats, leopard cats, large and small Indian civets, Asian palm civets, Crab-eating mongooses, Yellow-throated martens, Wild boars, Sambar deer, Red muntjac, Hog deer, Chital, Four-horned antelopes, Rhesus monkeys, Hanuman langurs, Indian pangolins, Indian porcupines, Flying squirrels, Black-naped hares and Hispid hares are among the animals found here. Apart from mammals, a total of 543 species of birds have been recorded inside the reserve. Black-chinned yuhina, Gould's sunbird, Blossom-headed parakeet, Slaty-breasted rail, Bengal florican, Vulnerable lesser adjutant, Grey-crowned prinia, Swamp francolin, Grass warblers, Slender-billed babblers, Oriental darter, Egrets, Bitterns, Storks, Kingfisher, Spotted eagle, Peafowl, Jungle fowl, Greater Spotted Eagle, Eastern Imperial Eagle, Pallas's Fish-eagle, Brahminy ducks, Goosander, Bar-headed geese, Cuckoos, Bengal Pittas, Sunbird and Flycatchers are among the birds seen in the Chitwan National Park.